Sunday, May 26, 2013



Capital: New Dehli
Other large cities include Mumbai (Bombay), Bangalore; Calcutta (Kolkata)
Himalaya mountain range in the north.
Siachen Glacier (located in the eastern Karakoram range of the Himalayas) 
Ganges River

1947 India-Pakistan War
1965 India-Pakistan War
1971 India-Pakistan War
1999 Kargil Conflict with Pakistan

1947- India and Pakistan are granted independence from Britain. Due to religious fighting the British decided to separate the two groups into India for the Hindus and Pakistan for the Muslims. Pakistan at this time consisted of East Pakistan (modern day Bangladesh) and West Pakistan (modern day Pakistan). East and West Pakistan were separated by hundreds of miles of Indian territory. While he people of East and West Pakistan are both predominately Muslim, they are different culturally. Pakistan is politically dominated by West Pakistan.
1962- Brief border conflict with China called the Sino-Indian War
1971- East Pakistan seeks independence. West Pakistan sends military forces to suppress rioting. India intervenes on the side of the East Pakistan separatist. After bitter fighting, East Pakistan becomes the independent nation of Bangladesh.
1999- Kargil conflict with Pakistan

Occasional border conflict with Pakistan.
Occasional border conflict with China.
Conflict in the Indian controlled Jammu and Kashmir region
Insurgency by Naxalite communist forces.
Conflict with Ethnic and religious separatist groups

Space Program
Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
2013- Launches rocket with satellite towards Mars.
2023- Successfully lands rover on the moon

Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) series of space launch rockets
Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) series of space launch rockets

GSAT-14 satellite

Anti-satellite weapon tested during "Mission Shakti"

Air Force
170,000 personnel

Tu-22 long range strategic bombers (No longer used?)
Tu-142 long range strategic bombers used by Indian Navy

SU-30MKI fighter aircraft. Capable of delivering a nuclear bomb. (170)

Rafale fighter aircraft. (5) 36 more on order

MiG-29 fighter aircraft. Called the “Baaz” or Hawk in India. Capable of delivering a nuclear bomb. (68)

Mirage 2000 fighter aircraft. Called the “Vajra” or Thunderbolt in India. Capable of delivering a nuclear bomb. (51)

HAL Tejas (“Radiant”) fighter aircraft. Indian made. Capable of delivering a nuclear bomb. (8)

MiG-27 attack aircraft. Called the “Bahadur” or Valiant in India. (90)
To be retired from service in January of 2020

MiG-21 fighter aircraft. To be phased out. (264)

Jaguar attack aircraft. License built Jaguar. Called the “Shamsher” in India. (149)

BAe Hawk trainer aircraft (65)

HAL HJT-36 Sitara 

HAL HPT-32 Deepak trainer aircraft 

HAL HJT-16 Kiran trainer aircraft (81)

Pilatus PC-7 trainer aircraft (14)

HTT-40 trainer aircraft. Indian made. Under development.

Il-78 tanker aircraft (7)

C-17 Globemaster III transport aircraft (3)

Il-76 Gajraj (King Elephant) transport aircraft (17)
C-130J Super Hercules transport aircraft (6)
An-32 Sutlej (A river in India) transport aircraft (109)

A-50 AEW&C aircraft  (3)

EMB-145 AEW&C aircraft

Gulfstream III aircraft used for reconnaissance (3)

Dornier Do 228 utility aircraft (40)

Saras- Indian made utility aircraft

Hawker Siddeley HS 748 aircraft used as passenger liner (59)
IAI Astra aircraft used for VIP transport (2)

AH-64 Apache attack helicopters (17)

Mi-35 Hind attack helicopters (27)
HAL Rudra attack helicopters (4)
HAL Light Combat Helicopters (2)

Mi-8 helicopters

Mi-17 helicopters
Mi-26 helicopters (3)
CH-47 Chinook transport helicopters

AW101 helicopters (3)
HAL Dhruv (“Polaris”)helicopters (47)
HAL Cheetah (Indian copy of the SA315B Lama) helicopters-24
HAL Cheetal (Modernized version of the Cheetah)-10
HAL Chetak (Indian copy of the SA316B) helicopters-74

Aircraft no longer in service
HAL Ajeet fighter aircraft no longer in use.
HAL HJT-16 Kiran advanced trainer/light attack aircraft no longer in use.
Hindustan HF-24 Marut attack aircraft no longer in use.

Air-to-Air Missiles
Magic Super
Python 5
Matra II Magic

Air-to-Surface Missiles

Brahmos cruise missiles

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)
IAI Searcher II unmanned aerial vehicles
IAI Heron unmanned aerial vehicles
IAI Harpy unmanned aerial vehicles/loitering munitions
DRDO Nishant unmanned aerial vehicle

Garuda Vajra unmanned aerial vehicle. Flying wing design. Under development.

Nagastra-1 loitering munitions. Under development. Made by Economic Explosive Ltd. (EEL) a subsidiary of Solar Industries of India.

Air Defense
S-400 air defense system
S-300 air defense system
Prithvi Air Defense (PAD) anti-ballistic missiles
Advanced Air Defense (AAD) anti-ballistic missiles
Akash (“Sky”) Indian made surface-to-air missiles (design similar to SA-6)

SA-6 Gainful (2K12 Kub) surface-to-air missiles
SA-5 Gammon (S-200) surface-to-air missiles
SA-8 Gecko (9K33 Osa) surface-to-air missiles

SA-13 Gopher (9K35 Strela-10) surface-to-air missiles

Tunguska (SA-19 Grison) self propelled air defense system

SPYDER self propelled air defense system.(108 launchers with 750 Python-5 and 750 Derby surface-to-air missiles.)?
SA-7 Grail (9K32M Strela-2) shoulder fired surface-to-air missiles
SA-16 Gimlet (9M313-1) shoulder fired surface-to-air missiles
ZSU-23-4 self propelled anti-aircraft guns
ZU-23 towed 23mm anti-aircraft guns
Bofors L70 towed 40mm anti-aircraft guns

Garud commando force

An-12 transport aircraft used as bomber aircraft during the 1971 India-Pakistan War.

Indian Navy
Approximately 56,000 personnel

Aircraft Carriers (2)
INS Vikrant 
Also called the Indigenous Aircraft Carrier 1 (IAC-1)
Currently undergoing sea trials.

INS Vikramaditya with MiG-29K aircraft

Destroyers (8)

Frigates (14)

Corvettes (24)

Submarines (including nuclear powered submarines with ballistic missiles)- 15
Patrol Boats (31)
Mine Warfare vessels
Landing Ship Dock- INS Jalashua (Jalashwa)-1
Landing Ship, Tank (9)
Landing Craft (6)
Auxiliary vessels 

The aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya is the former Russian aircraft carrier, Admiral Gorshov. This carrier is to operate MiG-29K aircraft.
The aircraft carrier INS Viraat was retired from service in 2017

Trishul (“Trident”) anti-aircraft/anti-missile system for some Indian naval vessels. Designed to be used against low flying aircraft and missiles.

Indian Naval Aviation
MiG-29K to be used on INS Vikramaditya (20)
Sea Harrier VSTOL aircraft launched from the aircraft carrier INS Viraat (12)

Tu-142 bomber aircraft also used for maritime patrol. May be equipped with Kh-35 cruise missiles.(8)

Il-38 aircraft used for maritime patrol. May be equipped with Kh-35 cruise missiles.(5)

P-8 Poseidon maritime patrol aircraft (1)
Dornier Do 228 aircraft (26)
HAL HJT-16 Kiran trainer aircraft (8)
HAL HPT-32 Deepak trainer aircraft (8)

HAL Dhruv utility helicopters. Made in India.

Ka-31 Helix B airborne early warning helicopters (9)

Ka-28 Helix A anti-submarine warfare helicopters (13)
Ka-25 Hormone anti-submarine warfare helicopters (7)
Westland Sea King helicopters (27)


Sikorsky SH-3 Sea King helicopters (6)
SA.316B Alouette III helicopters (3)
SA319 helicopters (25)

Brahmos cruise missile

SS-N-27 Klub (3M-54 Klub)
Harpoon anti-ship missiles
Gabriel anti-ship missiles
SS-N-2D Styx (P-20) anti-ship missiles
Sea Eagle anti-ship missiles
Varunastra anti-submarine torpedo


MARCOS or Marine Commando Force (MCF)

Indian Army
1,300,000 active duty personnel
2,000,000 reserve personnel

T-90 tanks with 125mm guns. Called the “Bhishma” in India (807)

T-72 tanks with 125mm guns. Called the “Ajeya” in India. (1950)

Arjun Indian made tanks with 120mm guns. (248)

T-55 tanks with 100mm guns (550)
Tata 8x8 wheeled armored vehicles with 105mm gun. Under development. 
BMP-2 Infantry Fighting Vehicles. Called the “Sarath” in India. (1,500+)

BMP-1 Infantry Fighting Vehicles (700)
BMD-1 airborne amphibious infantry fighting vehicles
BMD-2 airborne amphibious infantry fighting vehicles
NAMICA- Nag missile carrier. Modified BMP-1 infantry fighting vehicle with Nag anti-tank missiles.

CMT (Carrier Mortar Tracked)- 81mm mortar carriers based on the BMP-2 chassis. (198)

Casspir- South African made armored personnel carriers. Mine resistant.
FV 432 armored personnel carriers (80)
OT-64 SKOT armored personnel carriers (700+)
BTR-50 (200)
BRDM-2 Reconnaissance vehicles (255)

Ferret reconnaissance vehicles (100)
Takshak armored personnel carriers 
Mahindra Marksman armored vehicles

Mahindra Rakshak light armored vehicles

Windy 505 fast attack vehicles

Gridbots Titan unmanned ground vehicle. Under development.

Vijayanta (Victorious) tanks. Indian license produced Vickers Mk 1 tanks. 105mm guns. No longer in service.

9K58 Smerch 300mm multiple rocket launchers

Pinaka 214mm multiple rocket launchers. Indian made.

BM-21 122mm multiple rocket launchers

M-46 Catapult 130mm self propelled howitzers. Vijayanta chassis. To be replaced.
FV 433 Abbot 105mm self propelled howitzers.
Dhanush towed 155mm howitzers. Made in India (6)
FH77 towed 155mm howitzers
M-46 towed 155mm howitzers. Upgraded from 130mm field guns.
D-30 towed 122mm howitzers. To be replaced by the M-46.

Excalibur precision guided ammunition for 155mm howitzers

Nag (“Cobra”) guided anti-tank missiles. Indian made.

Helina- Helicopter launched Nag anti-tank missiles.
MILAN anti-tank guided missiles
Lahat anti-tank missile for use on the Arjun tank
9M113 Konkurs (AT-5 Spandrel)
9M111 Fagot (AT-4 Spigot)
9M119 Svir (AT-11 Sniper) for use on the T-90 tank.
9M133 Kornet (AT-14)
Invar anti-tank missiles for use on the T-90 tank. License produced copy of the  9M119M? To be manufactured by Bharat Dynamics Limited.
Amogha 3 anti-tank guided missiles. Made by Bharat Dynamics Ltd. Under development.  

RPG-7 anti-tank rocket launchers
Shipon israeli made anti-tank rocket launchers

RCL Mk II 84mm anti-tank rocket launchers (Indian made copy of the Carl Gustav)

RCL Mk III 84 anti-tank rocket launcher. Lighter version of the Mk II.
RPO Shmel incendiary rocket launchers

AGS-17 automatic grenade launchers

Denel NTW-20 (South African made 20mm anti-material rifle)
Gepard 12.7mm and 14.5mm anti-material rifles
Vidhwansak (Indian made 12.7mm, 14.5mm and 20mm anti-material rifle)

MG 1B machine guns (Indian made copy of the Bren)

PKM machine guns
INSAS light machine guns. Indian made light machine gun version of the INSAS.
Galil sniper rifles
Dragunov sniper rifles
INSAS assault rifle. Indian made.

AK-203 7.62x39mm assault rifles. Additional AK-203 rifles to be produced domestically in late 2022 at the Korwa Rifle Factory in Amethi.
AK-103 assault rifles
Tavor TAR-21 assault rifles
Zittara (Indian made copy of the Micro Tavor)
AKM assault rifles
A-7 (Indian made copy of the AK-47)
ASMI 9mm submachine guns. Under development

Patka helmets
Jawan- Soldier

Indian Army Aviation
HAL Rudra attack helicopters (2)

HAL Light Combat Helicopters 
HAL Lancer attack helicopters. Developed from the Cheetah helicopter (12)
HAL Dhruv utility helicopters (45)

HAL Chetak utility helicopters (60)

HAL Cheetah utility helicopters (48)
Mi-17 transport helicopters (6)

Parachute Regiment

Para Commandos 

10 Mountain Divisions

The Indian Army also includes Gurkha units recruited from Nepal.

1 Gorkha Rifles
3 Gorkha Rifles
4 Gorkha Rifles
5 Gorkha Rifles
8 Gorkha Rifles
9 Gorkha Rifles
11 Gorkha Rifles

Ghatak Commandos
Elite infantry platoons attached to each infantry battalion in the Indian army. Ghatak means “Striker” or “Lethal”

Commando Battalion for Resolute Action (COBRA)
Commandos trained in counter-revolutionary warfare. Created to counter Indias growing communist insurgency.

Rashtriya Rifles (RR) counter-insurgency force.

Indian Ballistic Missiles
Agni-5 (“Fire-5”) Indian made Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM). 5,000-6,000 km range.

Agni-4 ("Fire-4") Indian made Intermediate range ballistic missiles 4,000 km range
Agni-3 (“Fire-3”) Indian made Intermediate range ballistic missiles. 3,000-5,000 km range.

Agni-2 ("Fire-2") Indian made Medium range ballistic missiles. 2,000-3,000 km range
Agni-1 (“Fire-1”) Indian made Short range ballistic missiles. 500-700 km range

Shaurya (“Valor”) Indian made hypersonic surface-to-surface missiles. 750-1900 km range. Tested in 2008.
Prithvi-3 (“Earth-3”) 350-800 km range.
Prithvi-2 (“Earth-2”) 250 km range
Prithvi (“Earth”) Indian made short range ballistic missiles. 150 km range.
Prahaar ("Strike")- Indian made short range surface-to-surface ballistic missiles. 150 km range.

Brahmos cruise missiles

Much of the Indian military weapons and equipment is outdated. (2008 report)
Shortage of radars and a 30 year old radar network that needs upgrading.(2008 report)
More than half of Indias submarines are not sea worthy or serviceable. (2008 report)
Components for the Sea Eagle anti-ship missiles are no longer available. (2008 report)
The israeli made Popeye 2 air-to-surface missiles have been reported to have faulty wings. (2008 report)
The israeli made Harpy loitering missile or Unmanned Aerial Vehicle has been reported to have direction trouble. (2008 report)

Indian Paramilitary Forces
Assam Rifles- Approximately 50,000 personnel
Special Frontier Force- Approximately 10,000 personnel

Indian Coast Guard

Border Security Force (BSF)

Indian Border Security Force (BSF) maritime wing with:

Floating Border Outposts (FBOP)


Fast Attack Craft or Fast Interceptor Boats


Fast Patrol Boats (FPB)

FBOP made by Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders



National Security Guard (NSG)

Black Cat Commandos belonging to the NSG

Central Reserve Police Force

Rapid Action Force (RAF)- Anti-riot anti-civil disturbance force belonging to the CRPF.

Commando Battalion for Resolute Action (COBRA)
Elite unit of the Central Reserve Police Force. Trained in counter-guerrilla warfare.

Special Protection Group (SPG)
Primary responsibilities include providing security to the current Prime Minister of India their family members and the former Prime Minister of India.  Also protect other valuable personnel.

Railway Protection Force (RPF)

Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)
Provide security to important facilities in India.

Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB)
Armed Border Police. Patrol along the India-Bhutan and India-Nepal borders.
Includes an intelligence wing.

Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP)
Patrol along the Chinese border. Specialized mountain police force.

Indian Intelligence
Research and Analysis Wing (RAW)- Intelligence gathering

Intelligence Bureau- Counter intelligence

Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)- Premiere investigating agency in India.

Nuclear Weapons
Nuclear capable aircraft and ballistic missiles.

The Nuclear Command Authority (NCA) is India’s strategic nuclear command

Indian Companies
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL)
Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL)
Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO)
Oil and Natural Gas Corporation
Bharati Defence and Infrastructure Ltd.
Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL)
Goa Shipyard
Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers (GRSE)
Alcock Ashdown Gujarat
SHM Shipcare
Solar Industries
Economic Explosive Ltd. (EEL) a subsidiary of Solar Industries of India.

India military pictures